andy baker
Professor Andy Baker
BSc (Hons), PhD (Bristol)
Director of the Connected Waters Initiative Research Centre
Field of Research: 
Groundwater, paleoclimate, geochemistry
Contact details:
+61 2 9385 9327

Room 601A1, D26 Building
UNSW, Kensington 2052

Member of: 

Director of the Connected Waters Initiative Research Centre

Research Program Leader, National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training


Research & Current Projects

Research Interests

  • Groundwater, especially karst hydrogeology
  • Geochemistry, especially organic and inorganic isotope geochemistry
  • Paleoclimate, especially reconstructing past climates from caves

 What does this really mean? Some exciting fieldwork in often remote places, and some exciting laboratory work involving expensive analytical equipment.


Current Projects

EXO2 advanced water quality monitoring platforms. With colleagues from the Wetlands, Rivers and Landscapes Research Centre, Ecology and Evolution Research Centre and Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre, we are experimenting with five state-of-art EXO water quality probes for the in-situ analysis of organic and inorganic water quality

Source – receptor analysis of lignin phenols and microbial tetraether membrane lipids in karst to quantify stalagmite biomarker proxies of vegetation and temperature change. Funded by the ARC, and with collaborators at UNSW and Curtin University, this Discovery Project is building capacity to undertake biogeochmiecal analyses which can also be applied to a wide range of sediments

A mass spectrometer to analyse carbonate isotope records of Australia's climate, soil and groundwater history’ Funded by the ARC, and in collaboration with colleagues from Newcastle University, University of Melbourne and ANSTO, with this infrastructure grant established our carbonate isotope facility (Thermo MAT253 with Kiel device) in 2011.

Precipitation-groundwater interactions over eastern Australia: climate change impacts at multiple scales. Led by colleagues in the Climate Change Research Centre, these ARC funded SuperScience Fellowships include research into soil and ground water processes.

Monitoring organic matter in drinking water systems using fluorescence spectroscopy: improved early warning, process optimisation and water quality. Led by colleagues in the Faculty of Engineering, this ARC Linkage Project is investigating the use of fluorescence in drinking water treatment in three states.

National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training. Within the NCGRT, I lead research teams investigating the use of speleothems to understand groundwater recharge and surface water – ground water interactions.


In the Media

See also:




Dr Catherine Jex

Dr Helen Rutlidge (co-funded by the Mark Wainwright Analystical Centre)


Research Students

Current PhD Researchers

Mohammadreza (Reza) Keshavarzi Novel geochemical and geophysical characterization of fractured rock aquifers (co-supervised with Bryce Kelly). NCGRT supported

Carol Tadros Understanding the trace element proxy in Australian speleothems (co-supervised with Pauline Treble, ANSTO)

Monika Markowska Climate – infiltration – speleothem proxy relationships, Harrie Wood Cave (co-supervised with Pauline Treble, ANSTO). NCGRT supported

Cecilia Azcurra Isotope characterization of atmosphere-vegetation-soil-groundwater interactions (Lead supervisor: Matt McCabe, Civil and Environmental Engineering). NCGRT Supported.

Katarina David Understanding surface water – groundwater connectivity using novel geotechnical and geochemical approaches (Lead superviser: Wendy Timms, Mining Engineering)

Kashif Muhmud Novel geostatistical approaches for hydrogeological modelling (Lead supervisor: Gregoire Mariethoz, Civil and Environmental Engineering). NCGRT Supported

Yulia Shutova Fluorescence characterization of drinking water dissolved organic matter (Lead supervisor: Rita Henderson, Civil and Environmental Engineering)

Nur (Iza) Zainuddin Groundwater arsenic geochemistry (Lead superviser: Martin Andersen, Civil and Environmental Engineering). NCGRT Supported


Past PhD researchers

Shahad Aljanabi Organic matter fluorescence in drinking water distribution systems

Sahana Harun Hydrology and water quality of the Kinabatagan catchmeny, Borneo

Jessie Roe Organic matter characterization for drinking water treatment

Magdelena Bieroza Fluorescence characterization of drinking water dissolved organic matter

Catherine Jex Stalagmite palaeoclimate recon-struction from N Turkey

Alison Blyth Lipid biomarkers in stalagmites

Naomi Hudson Freshwater quality and dissolved organic matter fluorescence

Sarah Elliott Fluorescence signatures in natural aquatic systems

Claire Smith Statistical analysis of speleothem time series

Lisa Fuller High-resolution multiproxy geochemical Holocene climate records from 1000-year old Scottish stalagmites

Lucy Bolton The application of excitation-emission fluorescence spectrophotometry to the monitoring of dissolved organic matter in upland catchments in the United Kingdom

Siobhan McGarry Multi-proxy Quaternary Palaeo-environmental Records from Speleothem Pollen and Organic Acid Fluorescence



GEOS1211 Environmental Earth Science (Lecturer)

GEOS2291 Ground and Surface Water (Lecturer)

GEOS3761 Quaternary Environments (Guest Lecturer)

GEOS6733 Envrionmental Geophysics (Lecturer)

GEOS6734 3D Geological Modelling (Lecturer)




  1. Jex, C.N., Phipps, S.J., Baker, A, and Bradley, C., 2013. Reducing uncertainty in the climatic interpretations of speleothem d18O.  Geophysical Research Letters, DOI: 10.1002/grl.50467
  2. 2.     Bridgeman, J., Baker, A., Carliell-Marquet, C. and Carstea, E., Determination of changes in wastewater quality through a treatment works using fluorescence spectroscopy. Environmental Technology,DOI:10.1080/09593330.2013.803131.
  3. Dominguez-Villar, D., Fairchild, I.J., Baker, A., Carrasco, R.M. and Pedraza, J. 2013. Reconstruction of cave air temperature based on surface atmosphere temperature and vegetation changes: implications for speleothem paleoclimate records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 369-370, 158-168.
  4. Baker, A., Bradley, C. and Phipps, S.J., 2013. Hydrological modelling of stalagmite d18O response to glacial-interglacial transitions. Geophysical Research Letters, DOI: 10.1002/grl.50555
  5. Wynn, P.M., Borsato, A., Baker, A., Frisia, S., Miorandi, R. and Fairchild, I.J., 2013. Biogeochemical cycling of sulphur in karst and transfer into speleothem archives at Grotta di Ernesto, Italy Biogeochemistry 114, 255-267.
  6. Treble, P.C., Bradley, C., Wood, A, Baker, A., Jex, C.N., Fairchild, I.J., Gagan, M.K., Cowley, J., Azcurra, C., 2013. An isotopic and modelling study of flow paths and storage in Quaternary calcarenite, SW Australia: implications for speleothem paleoclimate records. Quaternary Science Reviews, 64, 90-103
  7. Hambly, A.C., Henderson, R.K., Baker, A., Stuetz, R.M., & Khan, S.J., 2012. Cross-connection detection in Australian dual reticulation systems by monitoring inherent fluorescent organic matter. Environmental Technology Reviews, 1, 67-80.
  8. Dominguez-Villar, D., Baker, A., Fairchild, I.J. and Edwards, R.L., 2012. A method to anchor floating chronologies in annually laminated speleothems with U-Th dates. Quaternary Geochronology, 14, 57-66.
  9. Mariethoz, G., Baker, A., Sivakumar, B., Hartland, A. & Graham, P. 2012. Chaos and irregularity in karst percolation. Geophys. Res. Lett., L23305 doi:10.1029/2012GL054270.
  10. Hartland, A., Timms, W., Baker, A., Shutova, Y. and Yu, D., 2012. Measuring dissolved organic carbon d13C in freshwaters using total organic carbon cavity-ring down spectroscopy (TOC-CRDS). Environmental Chemistry Letters, 10, 309-315.
  11. Singh, S., Henderson, R.K., Baker, A., Stuetz, R.M. and Khan, S.J., 2012. Characterisation of reverse osmosis permeates from municipal recycled water systems using fluorescence spectroscopy: implications for integrity monitoring. Journal of Membrane Science, 421-422, 180-189.
  12. Jex, C.N., Mariethoz, G., Baker, A., Graham, P., Andersen, M.S., Acworth, I., Edwards, N. and Azcurra, C., 2012. Spatially dense drip hydrological monitoring and infiltration behaviour at the Wellington Caves, South East Australia. Int Journal of Speleology, 41(2) 285-298.
  13. Baker, A. & Fairchild, I. J. (2012) Drip Water Hydrology and Speleothems. Nature Education Knowledge 3(5):16
  14. Spencer, R.G.M., Hernes, P.J., Aufdenkampe, A.K., Baker, A., Gulliver, P., Stubbins, A., Aiken, G.R., Dyda, R.Y., Butler, K.D., Mwamba, V.L., Mangangu, A.M., Wabakanghanzi, J.N. & Six, J., 2012. An Initial Investigation into the Organic Matter Biogeochemistry of the Congo River. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 84, 614-627.
  15. Baker, A., Bradley, C., Phipps, S., Fischer, M.,Fairchild, I.J., Fuller, L., Spotl, C. and Azcurra, C., 2012. Millennial-scale forward models and pseudoproxies of stalagmite d18O: an example from NW Scotland. Climate of the Past 8, 1153-1167.
  16. Mariethoz, G., Kelly, B. and Baker, A., 2012. Quantifying the value of laminated stalagmites for paleoclimate reconstructions. Geophsyical Research Letters, 39, L05407.
  17. Hartland, A., Fairchild, I.J., Lead, J.R., Borsato, A., Baker, A., Frisia, S. & Baalousha, M., 2012. From soil to cave: transport of trace metals by natural organic matter in cave dripwaters. Chemical Geology, 304-305, 68-82. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.01.032
  18. Bieroza, M., Baker, A. and Bridgeman, J., 2012.  New data mining and calibration approaches to the assessment of water treatment efficiency. Advances in Engineering Software, 44, 126-135
  19. Bieroza, M., Baker, A. and Bridgeman, J., 2012. Exploratory analysis of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra with self-organizing maps – a tutorial. Education for Chemical Engineers, 7, e22-e31. doi:10.1016/j.ece.2011.10.002
  20. Cumberland, S., Bridgeman, J., Baker, A., Sterling, M. & Ward, D., 2012. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for determining microbial quality in potable water applications. Environmental Technology, 33, 687-693. DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2011.588401
  21. Baker, A., Gulliver, P., Ascough, P., Roe, J. and Bridgeman, J., 2011. Assessing the effect of sterilization on the radiocarbon signature of freshwater dissolved organic carbon.  Radiocarbon, 53, 659-667.
  22. Baker, A., Wilson, R., Fairchild, I.J., Franke, J., Spotl, C., Mattey, D., Trouet, V. & Fuller, L., 2011. High resolution d18O and d13C records from an annually laminated Scottish stalagmite and relationship with last millennium climate. Global and Planetary Change, 79, 303-311.
  23. Bridgeman, J., Bieroza, M. and Baker, A., 2011. The application of fluorescence spectroscopy to organic matter characterisation in drinking water treatment.  Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology. 10, 277-290.
  24. Mudarra, M., Andreo, B. and Baker, A. 2011. Characterisation of dissolved organic matter in karst spring waters using intrinsic fluorescence: relationship with infiltration processes. Science of the Total Environment, 409, 3448-3462
  25. Bieroza, M., Baker, A, Bridgeman, J., 2011. An assessment of low pH coagulation using fluorescence spectroscopy. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 137, 596-601
  26. Jex, C.N., Baker, A., Eden, J.M., Eastwood, W.J., Fairchild, I.J., Leng, M.J., Thomas, L. & Sloane, H.J., 2011. A 500 yr speleothem-derived reconstruction of late autumn-winter precipitation, North East Turkey. Quaternary Research, 75, 399-405
  27. Murphy, K. R., Hambly, A., Singh, S., Henderson, R. K., Baker, A., Stuetz, R. M., and Khan, S. J. 2011. Spectral uniformity in PARAFAC decompositions of organic matter fluorescence in municipal water recycling schemes. Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 2909-2916.
  28. Blyth, A.J., Thomas, L.E., Calsteren, P.V. and Baker, A., 2011. A 2000 year lipid biomarker record preserved in a stalagmite from NW Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science, 26, 326-334
  29. Bieroza, M., Baker, A. and Bridgeman, J., 2011. Classification and calibration of organic matter fluorescence data with multi-way analysis methods and artificial neural networks: an operational tool for improved drinking water treatment. Environmetrics, 22, 256-270
  30. Dominguez-Villar, D., Carrasco, R.M., Pedraza, J., Fairchild, I.J. and Baker, A., 2010. Efecto en la temperatura de las visitas de turistas en la Cueva del Águila, Ávila. Valoración de la viabilidad de la cueva para el estudio de sus condiciones naturals. Geogaceta, 49, 43-46.
  31. Hartland, A., Fairchild, I.J., Lead, J.R. and Baker, A., 2010. Fluorescent properties of organic carbon in cave dripwaters: effects of filtrations, temperature and pH. Science of the Total Environment. 23, 5940-5950.
  32. Dominguez-Villar, D., Fairchild, I.J., Carrasco, R.,M., Pedraza, J. and Baker, A., 2010. The effect of visitors in a touristic cave and the resulting constraints on natural thermal conditions for palaeoclimate studies (Eagle Cave, central Spain). Acta Carsologica, 39, 491-502.
  33. Carstea, E.M., Baker, A., Bieroza, M., Ryenolds, D.M., 2010. Continuous fluorescence excitation-emission monitoring of river organic matter. Water Research, 44, 5356-5366.
  34. Baker, A., Asrat, A., Fairchild, I.J., Leng, M.J., Thomas, L.E., Widmann, W., Jex, C., Dong, B., Calsteren, P.V. and Bryant, C. 2010. Decadal scale rainfall variability in Ethiopia recorded in an annually laminated, Holocene-age, stalagmite. The Holocene, 20, 827-836.
  35. Bradley, C., Baker, A., Jex, C. and Leng, M.J., 2010.  Hydrological uncertainties in the modelling of cave drip-water d18O and the implications for stalagmite palaeoclimate reconstructions  Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 2201-2214.
  36. Hambly, A., Henderson, R., Storey, M.V., Baker, A., Stuetz, R.M and Khan, S.J. 2010. Fluorescence monitoring at a recycled water treatment plant and associated dual-distribution system - implications for cross-connection detection. Water Research, 44, 5323-5333.
  37. Spencer, R.G.M., Hernes, P.J., Ruf, R., Baker, A., Dyda, R.Y., Stubbins, A. and Six, J., 2010. Temporal controls on dissolved organic matter and lignin biogeochemistry in a pristine tropical river, Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 115, G03013
  38. Hartland, A., Fairchild, I.J., Lead, J.R., Dominguez-Villar, D., Baker, A., Gunn, J., Baalousha, M. and Ju-Nam, Y., 2010. The dripwaters and speleothems of Poole’s Cavern: a review of recent and ongoing research. Cave and Karst Science, 36, 37-46.
  39. Baker, A. and Bradley, C., 2010.  Modern stalagmite δ18O: Instrumental calibration and forward modelling. Global and Planetary Change, 71, 201-206
  40. Jex, C.N., Baker, A., Fairchild, I.J., Eastwood, W.J., Leng, M.J., Sloane, H.J., Thomas, L. and Bekaroğlu, E., 2010. Calibration of speleothem δ18O with instrumental climate records from Turkey. Global and Planetary Change, 71, 207-217.
  41. Bieroza, M.Z., Bridgeman, J. and Baker, A., 2010. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for determination of organic matter removal efficiency at water treatment works. Drinking Water Engineering Science, 3, 63-70   
  42. Muller, C.L., Kidd, C., Fairchild, I.J. and Baker, A. 2010. Investigation into clouds and precipitation over an urban area using micro rain radars, satellite remote sensing and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Atmospheric Research, 96, 241-255. 
  43. Wynn, P.M., Fairchild, I.J., Frisia, S., Spötl, C., Baker, A., Borsato, A., and EIMF, 2010.  High-resolution sulphur isotope analysis of speleothem carbonate by secondary ionisation mass spectrometry. Chemical Geology, 271, 101-107
  44. Hambly, A.C., Henderson, R.K., Baker, A., Stuetz, R.M. and Khan, S.J., 2010. Fluorescence monitoring for cross-connection detection in water reuse systems: Australian case studies. Water Science and Technology, 61, 155-162.
  45. Dominguez-Villar, D., Fairchild, I.J., Baker, A., Wang, X., Edwards, R.L. and Cheng, H., 2009. Oxygen isotope precipitation anomaly in the North Atlantic region during the 8.2 ka event. Geology, 37, 1095-1098
  46. Singh, S., Henderson, R.K., Baker, A., Stuetz, R.M., and Khan, S.J., 2009. Distinguishing stage 1 and 2 reverse osmosis permeates using fluorescence spectroscopy. Water Science and Technology, 60, 2017-2023.
  47. Hudson, N., Baker, A., Reynolds, D.M., Carliell-Marquet, C. and Ward, D., 2009. Changes in freshwater organic matter fluorescence intensity with freezing/ thawing and dehydration/ rehydration, J. Geophys. Res., 114, G00F08
  48. Bieroza, M., Baker, A., and Bridgeman, J., 2009. Exploratory analysis of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra with self-organizing maps as a basis for determination of organic matter removal efficiency at water treatment works, J. Geophys. Res., 114, G00F07
  49. Wannamaker, A.D. Jr., Baker, A., Butler, P.G., Richardson, C.A., Scourse, J.D., Ridgway, I., Reynolds, D.J. 2009. A novel method for imaging internal  growth patterns in marine mollusks: A luminescence case study on the  aragonitic shell of the marine bivalve Arctica islandica (Linnaeus). Limonology and Oceanography: Methods, 7, 673-681.
  50. Spencer, R.G., Stubbins, A.,  Hernes, P., Baker, A., Mopper, K.,  Aufdenkampe, A.,  Dyda, R.,  Mwamba, V., Mangangu, A., Wabakanghanzi, J. and Six, J., 2009. Photochemical degradation of dissolved organic matter and dissolved lignin phenols from the Congo River.  Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 114, G03010
  51. Carstea, E.M., Baker, A., Pavelescu, G. and Boomer, I., 2009. Continuous fluorescence assessment of organic matter variability on the Bournbrook River, Birmingham, UK. Hydrological Processes, 23, 1927-1946.
  52.  Trouet, V., Esper, J., Graham, N.E., Baker, A., Scourse, J.D. and Frank, D.C., 2009. Persistent positive North Atlantic Oscillation mode dominated the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Science, 324, 78-80
  53. Manciulea, A., Baker, A. And Lead, J.R., 2009. A fluorescence quenching study of the interaction of Suwannee River fulvic acid with iron oxide nanoparticles. Chemosphere, 76, 1023-1027.
  54. Linge, H., Baker, A., Andersson, C. and Lauritzen, S.E., 2009. Variable luminescent lamination and initial 230Th/232Th activity ratios in a late Holocene stalagmite from northern Norway. Quaternary Geochronology, 4, 181-192.
  55. Bieroza, M., Baker, A. and Bridgeman, J., 2009. Relating freshwater organic matter fluorescence to organic carbon removal efficiency in drinking water treatment. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 1765-1774   
  56. Roe, J., Baker, A. and Bridgeman, J., 2009. Relating organic matter character to trihalomethane formation potential: a data mining approach. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 8, 717-723.
  57. Henderson, R.K., Baker, A., Murphy, K.R., Hambly, A., Stuetz, R.M. and Khan, S.J., 2009. Fluorescence as a potential monitoring tool for recycled water systems: a review. Water Research, 43, 863-881
  58. Thacker, S.A., Tipping, E., Gondar, D. and Baker, A., 2008. Functional properties of DOM in a stream draining blanket peat. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 566-573.
  59. Baker, A., Tipping, E., Thacker, S.A. and Gondar, D., 2008. Relating dissolved organic matter fluorescence and functional properties. Chemosphere, 73, 1765-1772
  60. Muller, C.L., Baker, A., Hutchinson, R., Fairchild, I.J. and Kidd, C., 2008. Analysis of rainwater dissolved organic carbon compounds using fluorescence spectrometry. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 8036-8045.
  61. Pfeiffer, E, Pavelescu, G., Baker, A., Roman, C., Ioja, C., and Savastru, D., 2008. Pollution analysis on the Arges River using fluorescence spectroscopy. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 10, 1489 – 1494.
  62. Asrat, A., Baker, A., Leng, M.J., Gunn, J.and Umer, M., 2008. Environmental monitoring in the Mechara Caves, Southeastern  Ethiopia: implications for speleothem paleoclimate studies. International Journal of Speleology, 37, 207-220.
  63. Baker, A., Fuller, L., Genty, D., Fairchild, I.J., Jex, C. and Smith, C.L., 2008. Annually laminated stalagmites: a review. International Journal of Speleology, 37, 193-206.
  64. Jex, C., Claridge, E., Baker, A. and Smith, C.L., 2008. Hyperspectral imaging of cave stalagmites. Quaternary International, 187, 5-14.
  65. Baker, A., Bolton, L., Newson, M.D., and Spencer, R.G.M., 2008 Spectrophotometric properties of surface water dissolved organic matter in an afforested upland peat catchment. Hydrological Processes, 22, 2325-2336.
  66. Henderson, R.K., Baker, A., Parsons, S.A. and Jefferson, B. 2008. Characterisation of algogenic organic matter extracted from cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms. Water Research, 42, 3435-3445.   
  67. Blyth, A.J., Baker, A., Collins, M.J., Penkman, K.E.H., Gilmour, M.A., Moss, J.S.,  Genty, D. and Drysdale, R.N., 2008. Molecular organic matter in speleothems and its potential as an environmental proxy. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 905-921.
  68. Wynn, P.M., Fairchild, I.J., Baker, A., Baldini, J.U.L. and McDermott, F., 2008. Isotopic  archives of sulphate in speleothems. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72, 2465-2477
  69. Fuller, L., Baker, A., Fairchild, I.J., Spötl, C., Marca-Bell, A., Rowe, P. and Dennis, P.F., 2008. Isotope hydrology of dripwaters in a Scottish cave and implications for stalagmite palaeoclimate research. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 12, 1065-1074.
  70. Hudson, N.J., Baker, A., Ward D., Brunsdon, C., Reynolds, D. Carliell-Marquet, C. and Browning, S., 2008. Fluorescence spectrometry as a surrogate for the BOD5 test in water quality assessment: an example from South West England. Science of the Total Environment, 391, 149-158.
  71. Gondar, D., Thacker S.A., Tipping, E. and Baker, A., 2008. Functional variability of dissolved organic matter from a productive lake. Water Research, 42, 81-90.
  72. Caseldine, C.J., McGarry, S.F., Baker, A., Hawkesworth, C. and Smart, P.L. 2008. Late Quaternary speleothem pollen in the British Isles. Journal of Quaternary Science, 23, 193-200.
  73. Baker, A., Cumberland, S.A. and Hudson, N.J., 2008. Dissolved and total organic and inorganic carbon in some British rivers. Area, 40, 117-127.
  74. Bradley, C., Baker, A., Cumberland, S.A., Boomer, I. and Morrissey, I.P., 2007. Dynamics of water movement and trends in dissolved carbon in a headwater wetland in a permeable catchment, Wetlands 27, 1066-1080.
  75. Blyth, A.J., Asrat, A., Baker, A., Gulliver, P., Leng, M.J. and Genty, D., 2007. A new approach to detecting vegetation and land-use change using high-resolution lipid biomarker records in stalagmites. Quaternary Research, 68, 314-324
  76. Cumberland, S.A. and Baker, A., 2007. The freshwater dissolved organic matter fluorescence – total organic carbon relationship. Hydrological Processes, 21, 2093-2099.
  77. Seredyńska-Sobecka, B., Baker, A. and Lead, J.R., 2007. Characterization of colloidal and particulate organic carbon in freshwaters by thermal fluorescence quenching. Water Research, 41, 3069-3076.
  78. Spencer, R.G.M., Ahad, J.M.E., Baker, A., Cowie, G.L., Ganeshram, R., Upstill-Goddard, R.C. and Uher, G., 2007. The estuarine mixing behaviour of peatland derived dissolved organic carbon and its relationship to chromophoric dissolved organic matter in two North Sea estuaries (U.K.). Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Science, 74, 131-144.
  79. Hudson, N.J., Baker, A. and Reynolds, D. 2007. Fluorescence analysis of dissolved organic matter in natural, waste and polluted waters – a review. Rivers Research, 23, 631-649.
  80. Liu, R., Lead, J.R. and Baker, A., 2007. Fluorescence characterization of cross flow filtration derived freshwater colloidal and dissolved organic matter. Chemosphere, 68, 1304-1311.
  81. Baker, A., Asrat, A., Fairchild, I.J., Leng, M.J., Wynn, P.M., Bryant, C., Genty, D. and Umer, M., 2007. Analysis of the climate signal contained within d18O and growth rate parameters in two Ethiopian stalagmites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71, 2975-2988.
  82. Spencer, R.G.M., Bolton, L. and Baker, A., 2007. Freeze/Thaw and pH effects on freshwater dissolved organic matter fluorescence and absorbance properties. Water Research, 41, 2941-2950
  83. Baker, A., Elliott, S., and Lead, J.R., 2007. Effects of filtration and pH perturbation on organic matter fluorescence. Chemosphere, 67, 2035-2043.
  84. Hammond, D.S., Chapman, L., Baker, A., Thornes, J.E. and Sandford, A., 2007. Fluorescence of road salt additives: potential applications for residual salt monitoring. Measurement Science and Technology 18, 239-244
  85. Spencer, R.G.M., Baker. A, Uher, G. and Goddard, R., 2007. Discriminatory classification of natural and anthropogenic waters in two U.K. estuaries. Science of the Total Environment, 373, 305-323.
  86. Asrat, A., Baker, A., Umer, M., Leng, M.J., van Calsteren, P. and Smith, C.L., 2007.  A high-resolution multi-proxy stalagmite record from Mechara, Southeastern Ethiopia: Paleohydrological implications for speleothem paleoclimate reconstruction. Journal of Quaternary Science, 22, 53-63.
  87. Fairchild, I.J., Tuckwell, G.W., Baker, A. and Tooth, A.F., 2006. Modelling of dripwater hydrology and hydrogeochemistry in a weakly karstified aquifer (Bath, UK): implications for climate change studies. Journal of Hydrology, 321, 213-231.
  88. Fairchild, I.J., Smith, C.L.,  Baker, A., Fuller, L., Spötl, C., Mattey, D., McDermott, F. and E.I.M.F., 2006 Modification and preservation of environmental signals in speleothems. Earth Science Reviews, 75, 105-153. 
  89. Smith, C.L., Baker, A., Fairchild, I.J., Frisia, S. and Borsato, A., 2006. Reconstructing hemispheric scale climates from multiple stalagmite records.  International Journal of Climatology, 26, 1417-1424.
  90. Lead, J.R., De Momi, A., Goula, G. and Baker, A., 2006. Fractionation of freshwater colloids and particles by SPLITT: analysis by electron microscopy and 3D excitation-emission matrix fluorescence. Analytical Chemistry, 78 (11): 3609-3615.
  91. Elliott, S., Lead, J.R. and Baker, A., 2006. Characterisation of the fluorescence from freshwater, planktonic bacteria. Water Research, 40 (10): 2075-2083.
  92. Elliott, S., Lead, J.R. and Baker, A., 2006. Thermal quenching of fluorescence of freshwater, planktonic bacteria. Analytica Chimica Acta, 564, 219-225.
  93. Tan, M., Baker, A., Genty,D., Smith, C., Esper, J. and  Cai, B., 2006. Applications of stalagmite laminae to paleoclimate reconstructions: comparison with dendrochronology/climatology.  Quaternary Science Reviews, 25, 2103-2117.
  94. Baker, A., 2005. Thermal fluorescence quenching properties of dissolved organic matter. Water Research, 39, 4405-4412.
  95. Baker, A., Inverarity, R., and Ward, D., 2005. Catchment-scale fluorescence water quality determination. Water Science and Technology, 52:9, 199-207. 
  96. Baldini, J.U.L., McDermott, F., Baker, A. et al., 2005. Biomass effects on stalagmite growth and isotope ratios: A 20th century analogue from Wiltshire, England. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 240:2, 486-494.
  97. Sundqvist, H.S., Baker, A. and Holmgren, K., 2005. Luminescence variations in fast-growing stalagmites from Uppsala, Sweden. Geografiska Annaler Series A - Physical Geography, 87A: 4, 539-548. 
  98. Thacker, S.A., Tipping, E., Baker, A. and Gondar, D., 2005. Development and application of functional assays for freshwater dissolved organic matter. Water Research, 39:18, 4559-4573.
  99. Johnson, K.L., Baker, A. and Manning, D.A.C., 2005.  Passive treatment of Mn-rich mine water: using fluorescence to observe microbiological activity. Geomicrobiology Journal, 22, 141-149.
  100. Lamont-Black J., Baker A., Younger P.L., and Cooper A.H., 2005.  Utilising seasonal variations in hydrogeochemistry and excitation-emission fluorescence to develop a conceptual groundwater flow model with implications for subsidence hazards: an example from Co. Durham, UK. Environmental Geology, 48: 320-335.
  101. Baker, A., 2005. Fluorescence tracing of diffuse landfill leachate contamination in rivers. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 163: 229-244.
  102. Baker, A., Ward, D., Lieten, S.H., Periera, R., Simpson, E.C. and Slater, M., 2004. Measurement of protein-like fluorescence in river and waste water using a handheld spectrophotometer. Water Research, 38:  2934-2938.
  103. Baker, A. and Inverarity, R., 2004. Protein-like fluorescence intensity as a possible tool for determining river water quality. Hydrological Processes, 18: 2927-2945.
  104. Baker, A. and Spencer, R.G.M., 2004. Characterization of dissolved organic matter from source to sea using fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy. Science of the Total Environment, 333: 217-232.
  105. Baker, A. and Curry, M., 2004. Fluorescence of leachates from three contrasting landfills. Water Research, 38: 2605-2613.
  106. Baker, A., 2003. Land use and Water Quality. Hydrological Processes, 17, 2499-2501.
  107. Baker, A. and Brunsdon, C., 2003. Non-linearities in drip water hydrology: an example from Stump Cross Caverns, Yorkshire. Journal of Hydrology, 277, 151-163.
  108. Xie, S., Yi, Y., Huang, J., Hu, C., Cai, Y., Collins, M. and Baker A. 2003. Lipid distribution in a subtropical southern China stalagmite as a record of soil ecosystem response to paleoclimate change. Quaternary Research, 60, 340-347.
  109. Baker, A. and Genty, D., 2003. Comment on “a test of annual resolution in stalagmites using tree rings”. Quaternary Research, 59, 476-478.
  110. Baker, A., Inverarity, R., Charlton, M.E. and Richmond, S., 2003. Detecting river pollution using fluorescence spectrophotometry: case studies from the Ouseburn, NE England.  Environmental Pollution, 124, 57-70.
  111. Genty, D., Blamart, D., Ouhadi, R., Gilmour, M.A., Baker, A., Jouzel, A. and Van-Exter, S., 2003. Greenland ice core chronologies constrained by Dansgaard-Oeschger events preserved in a SW-France stalagmite (32-83 ka). Nature, 421, 833-836.
  112. Brunsdon, C. and Baker, A., 2002. Principal filter analysis for luminescence excitation emission data. Geophysical Research Letters, 29 (24): Art. No. 2156.
  113. Baker, A., 2002. Spectrophotometric discrimination of riverine dissolved organic matter. Hydrological Processes, 16, 3203-3213.
  114. Baker, A., Proctor, C.J. and Barnes, W.L., 2002. Stalagmite lamina doublets: a 1,000 year record of extreme winters in NW Scotland. International Journal  of Climatology, 22, 1339-1345.
  115. Proctor, C.J., Baker, A. and Barnes, W.L., 2002. A three thousand year record of north Atlantic climate. Climate Dynamics, 19, 449-454.
  116. Baker, A., 2002. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix characterisation of river waters impacted by a tissue mill effluent. Environmental Science and Technology, 36, 1377-1382.
  117. Baker, A., 2002. Fluorescence properties of some farm wastes: Implications for water quality monitoring. Water Research, 36, 189-194.
  118. Baker, A., 2001. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix characterisation of some sewage impacted rivers. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 948-953
  119. Baker, A. and Lamont-Black J, 2001. Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter as a natural tracer of ground water. Ground Water, 39: 745-750.
  120. Charman, D.J., Caseldine, C.J., Baker, A., Gearey, B. and Hatton, J., 2001. Palaeohydrological records from peat profiles and speleothems in Sutherland, NW Scotland. Quaternary Research, 55, 223-234.
  121. Fairchild, I.J., Baker, A., Borsato, A., Frisia, S., Hinton, R.W., McDermott, F. and Tooth, A.F., 2001. Annual to sub-annual resolution of multiple trace-element trends in speleothems. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 158, 831-841.
  122. Genty, D., Baker, A., and Vokal, B., 2001. Inter and intra annual growth rates of European stalagmites. Chemical Geology, 176, 193-214.
  123. Genty, D. Baker, A., Massault, M., Proctor, C., Gilmour, M., Pons, E. and Hamelin, B., 2001. Stalagmite dead carbon proportion variation: paleodissolution process and soil organic matter dynamics recorder - implications for 13C variations in stalagmites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65, 3443-3457.
  124. Murton, J.B., Baker A., Bowen, D.Q., Caseldine, C.J., Coope, G.R., Currant, A.P. et. al., 2001. A late Middle Pleistocene temperate-periglacial-temperate sequence (Oxygen Isotope Stages 7-5e) near Marsworth, Buckinghamshire, UK, Quaternary Science Reviews, 20, 1787-1825.
  125. Newson, M., Baker, A. and S. Mounsey, 2001. The potential role of freshwater luminescence measurements in exploring runoff pathways in upland catchments. Hydrological Processes, 15, 989-1002
  126. Baker, A., Bolton, L., Brunsdon, C., Charlton, M. and McDermott, F., 2000. Visualisation of luminescence excitation-emission timeseries: palaeoclimate implications from a 10,000 year stalagmite record from Ireland. Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 2145-2148.
  127. Baker, A., 2000. Comparison of the luminescence intensity of speleothem feed waters from six cave systems. Cave and Karst Science, 27, 125-126.
  128. Baker, A. and Bolton, L., 2000. Speleothem organic acid luminescence intensity ratios: a new palaeoenvironmental proxy. Cave and Karst Science, 27, 121-124.
  129. Baker, A. and Proctor, C.J., 2000. Actively growing subaqueous stalagmites. Cave and Karst Science, 27, 79-84.
  130. Baker, A., Genty, D. and Fairchild, I.J., 2000. Hydrological characterisation of stalagmite dripwaters at Grotte de Villars, Dordogne, by the analysis of inorganic species and luminescent organic matter. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 4, 439-449.
  131. Caseldine, C.J., Baker, A., Charman, D. and Hendon, D., 2000. A comparative study of optical properties of NaOH peat extracts: palaeoenvironmental implications for ‘humification’ studies. The Holocene, 10, 649-658.
  132. McGarry, S.F. and Baker, A. 2000. Organic acid fluorescence: applications to speleothem palaeoclimate reconstruction. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 1087-1101.
  133. Proctor, C.J., Baker, A., Barnes, W.L. and Gilmour, M.A. 2000. A thousand year speleothem proxy record of North Atlantic climate from Scotland. Climate Dynamics, 16, 815- 820.
  134. Baker, A., Caseldine, C.J., Gilmour, M.A., Charman, D., Proctor, C.J., Hawkesworth, C.J., and Phillips, N., 1999. Stalagmite luminescence and peat humification records of palaeomoisture for the last 2,500 years. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 165, 157-162.
  135. Baker, A. and Genty, D., 1999. Fluorescence wavelength and intensity variations of cave waters. Journal of Hydrology, 217, 19-34.
  136. Baker, A., Mockler, N.J. and Barnes, W.L., 1999. Fluorescence intensity variations of speleothem forming groundwaters: implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Water Resources Research, 35, 407-413.
  137. Baker, A., Proctor, C.J. and Barnes, W.L., 1999. Variations in stalagmite luminescence laminae structure at Poole's Cavern, England, AD1910 to 1996: calibration of a palaeoprecipitation proxy. The Holocene, 9, 683-688.
  138. Genty, D., Massault, M., Gilmour, M. and Baker, A., 1999. Comparison of AMS 14C and TIMS U/Th ages on two Holocene stalagmites - evidence for stable dead carbon proportion and of growth rate variations. Radiocarbon, 41, 251-270.
  139. Caseldine, C.J., Baker, A. and Barnes, W.L., 1999. A rapid, non-destructive scanning method for detecting distal tephra layers in peats. The Holocene, 9, 635-38
  140. Baker, A. and Genty, D., 1998. The effects of changes in land use and increasing tourism on cave speleothem deposition. Journal of Environmental Management, 53-165-175.
  141. Baker, A., Genty, D. and Smart, P.L., 1998. High-resolution records of soil humification and palaeoclimate change from speleothem luminescence excitation-emission wavelength variations. Geology, 26, 903-906.
  142. Baker, A., Genty, D., Dreybrodt, W.,  Barnes, W.L., Mockler, N.J. and Grapes, J.,  1998. Testing theoretically predicted stalagmite growth rate with Recent annually laminated samples: implications for past stalagmite deposition. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 393-404.
  143. Roberts, M.S., Smart, P.L. and Baker, A., 1998. Annual trace element variations in a Holocene Speleothem. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 154, 237-246.
  144. Caseldine, C.J. and Baker, A., 1998. Frequency distributions of Rhizocarpon geographicum s.l., modelling and climate variations in Trollaskagi, N. Iceland. Arctic and Alpine Research, 30, 175-183.
  145. Baker, A. and Barnes, W.L., 1998. Comparison of the Luminescence Properties of Waters Depositing Flowstone and Stalagmites at Lower Cave, Bristol. Hydrological Processes, 9, 1447-1459.
  146. Baker, A. and Simms, M.J., 1998. Active tufa deposition in the Wessex region and the "Late Holocene tufa decline". The Holocene, 8, 359-365.
  147. Baker, A., Ito, E., Smart, P.L. and McEwan, R., 1997. Elevated 13-C in Speleothem and Implications for Palaeovegetation Studies. Chemical Geology (Isotope Geoscience), 136, 263-270.
  148. Baker, A., Barnes, W.L. and Smart, P.L., 1997. Stalagmite Drip Discharge and Organic Matter Fluxes in Lower Cave, Bristol.  Hydrological Processes, 11, 1541-1555.
  149. Genty, D., Baker, A. and Barnes, W.L., 1997. Comparison entre les lamines luminescentes et les lamines visibles annualles de stalagmites. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, 325, 193-200.
  150. Baker, A., Caseldine, C.J., Hatton, J., Hawkesworth, C.J. and Latham, A.G., 1997. A Cromerian complex stalagmite from the Mendip Hills, England. Journal of Quaternary Science, 12, 533-537.
  151. Baker, A., Smart, P.L. and Edwards, R.L., 1996. Mass spectrometric dating of flowstones from Stump Cross Caverns and Lancaster Hole, Yorkshire: palaeoclimate implications. Journal of Quaternary Science, 11, 107-115.
  152. Baker, A., Barnes, W.L. and Smart, P.L., 1996. Speleothem luminescence intensity and spectral characteristics: signal calibration and a record of palaeovegetation change. Chemical Geology, 130, 65-76.
  153. Baker, A., Smart, P.L. and Edwards, R.L., 1995. Palaeoclimate implications of mass spectrometric dating of a British flowstone. Geology, 23, 309-312.
  154. Baker, A., Smart, P.L., Barnes, W.L., Edwards, R.L. and Farrant, A.R., 1995. The Hekla 3 Volcanic eruption recorded in a Scottish speleothem? The Holocene, 5, 336-342.
  155. Baker, A. and Smart, P.L., 1995. Recent flowstone growth rates: field measurements in comparison to theoretical predictions. Chemical Geology, 122, 121-128.
  156. Baker, A., Smart, P.L., Edwards, R.L. and Richards, D.A., 1993. Annual   banding in a cave stalagmite. Nature, 364, 518-520.
  157. Baker, A., Smart, P.L. and Ford, D.C., 1993. Northwest European palaeoclimate as indicated by growth frequency variations of secondary calcite deposits. Palaeogeography, -climatology, -ecology, 100, 291-301.



  1. Fairchild, I.J. and Baker, A., 2012. Speleothem Science. Wiley-Blackwell.
  2. Coble, P.G., Baker, A., Spencer, R.G.M., Reynolds, D.M. and Lead, J.R. (Editors), 2014. Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence. Cambridge University Press. In press.


Book Chapters

  1. Gabor, R.S., Baker, A., McKnight, D.W. and Miller, M.P., 2014. Fluorescence indices and their interpretation. In: Coble, P.G., Baker, A. et al. (eds) Aquatic organic Matter Fluorescence. Cambridge University Press.
  2. Coble, P.G., Spencer, R.M., Baker, A., and Reynolds, D.M., 2014. Aquatic organic matter fluorescence. In Coble, P.G., Baker, A. et al. (eds) Aquatic organic Matter Fluorescence. Cambridge University Press.
  3. Vadillo, I. and Baker, A., 2006. Aplicacion de la fluorescencia como trazador de contaminacion de aguas subterraneas (vertedero de Marbella, Malaga). In: Duran, J.J., Andreo, B. and Carrasco, F. (Eds.), Karst, Climate Change and groundwater. Publications of the Spanish Institute of Geology and Minerology, 18, 81-89. Madrid.
  4. Baker, A., 2005. Essential sources in cave science – palaeoenvironments. In: Essential Sources in Cave Science. (Ed.) Proudlove, G. British Cave Research Association.
  5. Baker, A., 2005. Land use and water quality. In: Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. Anderson, M.G. (Ed.). Wiley.
  6. Baker, A. and Proctor, C.J., 1996. The Caves of Berry Head. In: The Quaternary of Devon and East Cornwall,  Charman, D. et al. (Eds.) pp147-162.